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Fluorescence Imaging

Fluorescence techniques in minimally invasive surgery visualize features that are invisible under conventional white light. Autofluorescence (AF) uses the endogenous fluorescence of the mucosa to differentiate malignant tumors from healthy tissue at an early stage. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) detects the pathological accumulation of fluorescent porphyrin products in bladder tumors and allows rigorous treatment of these malignant changes. Use of near-infrared (NIR) imaging expands the spectrum of diagnostic options and enables the perfusion evaluation of organs and tissues and the visualization of the bile duct or visually supports the diagnosis of lymph nodes. Indocyanine green (ICG) is used in this case. At the heart of these imaging systems is the D-LIGHT light source as well as specially adapted telescopes and our HD camera systems.

Fluorescence-guided imaging techniques, particularly when applied with the new IMAGE1 S camera system, have shown to be valuable auxiliary modalities of visualization that can be used effectively in the surgeon’s decision-making on a regular basis.

Highlights

KARL STORZ – Near infrared (NIR/ICG)

discover new facets of light!

The NIR/ICG system from KARL STORZ allows visualization beneath the tissue surface and detects the distribution of the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG).

Special Features:

  • Can be used for white light and fluorescence imaging
  • Parallel fluorescence imaging and background illumination
  • Quick and easy switchover between white light and fluorescence mode via footswitch
  • Telescopes for endoscopic and open-surgical interventions
  • Optimal illumination and contrast enhancement
Blood perfusion assessment of colon section in a colorectal cancer patient
Blood perfusion assessment of colon section in a colorectal cancer patient – Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

Assessing the perfusion of a colon section is quick and easy with the NIR/ICG system from KARL STORZ. The monitoring of the rapid influx of ICG in the tissue allows the easy identification of the ischemic areas. Doctors using the system feel assured of their decisions.

  • Direct intraoperative diagnosis decreases surgery time
  • Rapid perfusion assessment of the intended resection zone
  • Perfusion problems can be identified by ICG which can be utilized for resection
  • Visualization of structural landmarks below the tissue surface in real-time
Fluorescence cholangiography during a cholecystectomy
Fluorescence cholangiography during a cholecystectomy – Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

Intravenously administered ICG naturally collects in the biliary system. The collected ICG can be fluorescently excited with the NIR/ICG system from KARL STORZ, resulting in rapid identification of the biliary system anatomy. Switching between white light and fluorescence modes is performed at the touch of a button and cholecystectomies can be performed easily in a laparoscopic or open-surgical approach.

  • Shortened operation time with ICG compared to intraoperative cholangiography
  • Biliary tree mapping with ICG guidance makes the rapid delineation of the cystic duct, common bile duct and Portal vein possible
  • Intraoperative detection of bile leakage
  • Open and minimally invasive interventions can be undertaken seamlessly as only the telescopes, and not the entire camera system, need to be exchanged
Laparoscopic transverse colectomy with fluorescence-guided lymphadenectomy
Laparoscopic transverse colectomy with fluorescence-guided lymphadenectomy – Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

Visualizing the lymphatic system can be very helpful in many areas. The NIR/ICG system from KARL STORZ enables visualization of ICG through the lymphatic system. Doctors using the system appreciate the visual control and guidance of this fluorescence technique.

  • NIR allows the intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph nodes and the lymphatic system network
  • Radiation-free fluorescence guidance technique is used to predict metastatic migration through the lymphatic system
  • Makes en-bloc resection of lymph nodes easier
  • High node detection rates compared to established methods of lymph node visualization
Endoscopic colon anastomosis – Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy (endoscopic image)
Endoscopic colon anastomosis – Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy (endoscopic image)

The KARL STORZ – Near Infrared (NIR/ICG) System offers the possibility to assess if the perfusion of the colon is satisfactory. Laparoscopically, surgeons are naturally unable to control the anastomosis with palpation, but can control it visually, therefore NIR/ICG fluorescence angiography provides a real-time intraoperative solution.
NIR/ICG fluorescence angiography is quick and easy. To confirm blood supply is sufficient, the surgeon identifies the borders of the healthy bowel segment before setting the staple-line and immediately after completing the anastomosis. Well perfused tissue can be easily distinguished from ischemic areas by illumination of ICG after intravenous injection. Thereby, the surgeon can confirm the bowel resection borders are well perfused and if not can intervene immediately to re-set the anastomosis.

With more than 694,000 deaths worldwide in 2012 according to the WHO (World Health Organization), colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer. In most cases, radical surgery is the only way for total treatment.
Successful colorectal anastomosis is an important factor in the healing process of radical surgery. The perfusion of the anastomosed bowel segments is critical. The mean anastomotic leakage (AL) rate for colic and rectal anastomosis was 7.2%, whereas AL for rectal anastomosis alone was 8.8%1 resulting in a 6-22% mortality and 56% morbidity rate opposed to patients without AL after colorectal resection2.
KARL STORZ - Near Infrared (NIR/ICG) fluorescence angiography enables delineation of ischemic areas. According to a recent study the anastomotic leakage rate was reduced to 0% by using NIR/ICG imaging for the assessment of the perfusion during surgery3.

1. Pommergaard HC, et al. Colorectal Dis. 2014.
2. Daams F, et al. World J Gastroenterol. 2013.
3. Boni L, et al. Surg. Endos. 2015.

Extracorporeal colon anastomosis with VITOM® II ICG – Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy (endoscopic image)
Extracorporeal colon anastomosis with VITOM® II ICG – Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy (endoscopic image)

Many colorectal surgeries are performed openly. The VITOM® II ICG exoscope may be used with the KARL STORZ – Near Infrared (NIR/ICG) System to transfer the benefits of NIR/ICG imaging to open surgery. The imaging equipment is the same, only the telescope has to be changed.

Spectra A mode of the IMAGE1 S camera system is recommended to be used with the VITOM® II ICG for optimal fluorescence results. Easily handleable holding arms integrate the VITOM® II ICG exoscope perfectly in the surgeon’s working Environment.

Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy (endoscopic image)

The KARL STORZ Near Infrared (NIR/ICG) system and the marker indocyanine green (ICG) enables non-radioactive visualization of the entire lymph system surrounding a tumor in real time.

The system offers the following advantages:

  • Non-radioactive lymph node detection method
  • Multidisciplinary use
  • Xenon-based technology (no laser safety measures necessary)
  • Intuitive switchover between the standard white light and the fluorescence mode via footswitch
  • Physicians describe their surgical experience with the system as follows:
    The NIR/ICG system allows the reduction of radical lymphadenectomy and, at the same time, visual control makes the en-bloc resection of lymph nodes easier.

*The intradermal administration of indocyanine green for (S)LN has already been approved in Italy (breast cancer), Japan and Russia. Please inform yourself in advance about the potential for the off-label use of ICG in your hospital / country.

Source: Prof. Cadière, Saint-Pierre University, Brussels, Belgium (endoscopic image)

In gynecology, the degree of tumor involvement in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is of great importance as it provides medical information about the tumor stage and is thus one of the main prognostic factors. In breast cancer surgery, SLN detection with the radioactive tracer 99mTc is the gold standard. In other areas of gynecological tumor surgery, its benefits in comparison to elective lymph node dissection is the subject of discussion. As a new, non-radioactive imaging technique, NIR imaging with ICG can provide a useful contribution to this field.1 SLN mapping of endometrial carcinoma yielded the following results (radioactive tracer 99mTc vs. ICG):

 

  Radioaktiver Tracer 99mTc ICG

Total SLN
detection rate

Bilateral SLN

Total SLN detection rate

Bilateral SLN
Study 12  83 %  61 %  95,5 %  95,5 %

1Papadia et al., Silver Books, NIR/ICG-Enhanced Fluorescence-Guided Imaging of Malignant Tumors in Gynecology (ISBN 978-3-89756-931-7)

2 Imboden et al., Surg. Oncol. 2015

Source: Prof. Luigi Boni, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy (endoscopic image)

Fluorescence-guided visualization of the lymphatic system with the NIR/ICG system from KARL STORZ is now used in many other disciplines. The following examples have already been described in the literature:

Urology 1,2:

  • Prostate carcinoma
  • Penile carcinoma

General Surgery 3,4:

  • Colorectal carcinoma
  • Pancreatic carcinoma
  • Gastric carcinoma
     

1 Jeschke et al. 2012
2 Hruby et al. 2015
3 Boni et al. 2014
4 Boni et al., Doctor-to-Doctor Manual ENDO-PRESS®, ICG-enhanced Fluorescence-guided Laparoscopic Surgery (ISBN 978-3-89756-934-8)

Source: Dr. García Valdecasas, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Spain

The VITOM® II ICG from KARL STORZ also offers an optimal solution for visualizing the lymph system in open surgery. VITOM® II ICG can be used with the NIR/ICG system.

  • Also allows fluorescence-supported lymph node detection in open surgery in various disciplines such as, for example, gynecology in the case of breast cancer
  • Possibility for the integration of an exoscope by means of a holding arm in the surgeon’s space
  • For optimal results, the SPECTRA A* visualization mode can also be activated to achieve contrast enhancement

* SPECTRA A: Not for sale in the U.S.

Additional information on the specialty

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A Comparison of Radiocolloid and Indocyanine GreenFluorescence Imaging, Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Patients with Cervical Cancer

Human Medicine

Fluorescence Imaging

Imboden S, Papadia A, Nauwerk M, McKinnon B, Kollmann Z, Mohr S, Lanz S, Mueller MD

Annals of Surgical Oncology. 2015 Jun 30.

Indocyanine green fluorescence endoscopy for visual differentiation of pituitary tumor from surrounding structures

Human Medicine

Fluorescence Imaging

Litvack ZN, Zada G, Laws ER Jr.

J Neurosurg. 2012 Feb 24.

Endoscopic ICG perfusion imaging for flap transplants: clinical results

Human Medicine

Fluorescence Imaging

Christian Betz

Head Neck Oncol. 2010; 2(Suppl 1): O15. Published online 2010 October 29. doi: 10.1186/1758-3284-2-S1-O15

Semi-quantitative Fluorescence Endoscopy with use of ICG

Human Medicine

Fluorescence Imaging

Hilmar Schachenmayr, Sven Zhorzel, Herbert Stepp, Ulrich Harréus und Christian Stephan Betz

World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany IFMBE Proceedings, 2009, Volume 25/6, 118-119, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-03906-5_32

Endoscopic measurements of free-flap perfusion in the head and neck region using red-excited Indocyanine Green: preliminary results

Human Medicine

Fluorescence Imaging

Betz CS, Zhorzel S, Schachenmayr H, Stepp H, Havel M, Siedek V, Leunig A, Matthias C, Hopper C, Harreus U.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009 Dec;62(12):1602-8. Epub 2008 Nov 25

Lymph node pathway visualization in real time by laparoscopic radioisotope- and fluorescence- guided sentinel lymph node dissection in prostate cancer staging

Human Medicine

Fluorescence Imaging

Jeschke, S., Lusuardi, L., Myatt, A., Hruby, S., Janetschek, G.

27th Annual Congress of the European Association of Urology Paris, February 27, 2012

IntraoperativeLaparoscopicFluorescenceGuidance to the Sentinel Lymph Node in Prostate Cancer Patients: Clinical Proof of Concept of an Integrated Functional Imaging Approach Using a Multimodal Tracer

Human Medicine

Fluorescence Imaging

Henk G. van der Poela, Tessa Buckleb, Oscar R. Brouwerb, Renato A. Valdés Olmosb, Fijs W.B. van Leeuwenb

European Urology Volume 60, Issue 4, October 2011, Pages 826–833

Die laparoskopische Fluoreszenzangiographie mit Indocyaningrün zur intraoperativen Beurteilung der Perfusion bei kolorektalen Anastomosen

Human Medicine

Fluorescence Imaging

T. Carus und H. Lienhard

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie, 2009, Volume 38, Chirurgisches Forum und DGAV Forum 2009 , XXIII, 331-333, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-00625-8_120